Covid-19 and Memory Loss

Covid-19 and Memory Loss

As the aftermath of COVID-19 continues to unfold, the concerns and challenges individuals are facing seem to be endless. Beyond the physical symptoms, there is emerging evidence indicating a possible link between COVID-19 and memory loss. In this article, I will delve into the topic of COVID-19 and memory loss. I will also provide helpful suggestions and reasons for these recommendations.

“Brain fog—one of long COVID’s most misunderstood symptoms—is a name that has gained more traction to refer to a range of neurological symptoms such as feeling slow, difficulty thinking or concentrating, confusion and forgetfulness. Nearly half of patients report either poor memory or brain fog, according to a JAMA Network Open study on long COVID symptoms. And it doesn’t just afflict patients who were sick enough to need a ventilator or hospital care—it can affect anyone who has been infected with SARS-CoV-2.”


The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically changed the way we live, bringing with it various health implications. Apart from the well-known symptoms such as fever, cough, and difficulty breathing, some individuals have reported experiencing memory-related issues following a COVID-19 infection. This phenomenon has caught the attention of researchers and medical professionals, leading to ongoing investigations into the potential connection between COVID-19 and memory loss.

What is COVID-19?

Before we delve deeper, let’s briefly understand what COVID-19 is. COVID-19, short for coronavirus disease 2019, is an infectious illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It primarily spreads through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or breathes heavily in close proximity to others. The virus affects the respiratory system, leading to a range of symptoms, from mild to severe.

Understanding Memory Loss

Memory loss, also known as amnesia, refers to the inability to recall or retain information that was previously stored in the brain. It can affect various aspects of our daily lives, such as remembering recent events, recognizing people, or recalling important details. Memory loss can be caused by various factors, including neurological conditions, head injuries, and certain medications.

The Function of Memory in a Healthy Brain

From the moment we enter the world, our brains are bombarded with an overwhelming amount of information. Not all of it is worth retaining, but our memory serves as the mechanism that enables us to hold onto valuable knowledge and experiences throughout our lives. Memory empowers us to recollect past events, form connections, and shape our personal identity.

The capacity of our memory extends to processing vast quantities of information, encompassing various sensory inputs such as images, sounds, smells, feelings, and words. Different types of memories can be retained for different durations:

  • Sensory Memory: This form of memory stems from our senses and has a very brief lifespan. Visual information lasts no longer than half a second, while auditory information lingers for about three seconds. For instance, momentarily glimpsing a passing car and recalling its color exemplify sensory memory. It operates beyond conscious control, representing an automatic response.
  • Short-Term Memory: Also known as working memory, this is the information that currently occupies our awareness or thinking. Most people can retain this information for approximately 20 to 30 seconds.
  • Working Memory: Working memory involves an active process of storing and retrieving information in our short-term memory. It typically involves retaining a small piece of information that we will need to recall later, such as a phone number or a shopping list.
  • Long-Term Memory: Long-term memory pertains to information that can be stored for extended periods, potentially throughout our entire lives. Although we remain unaware of this information, we can access and retrieve it when necessary. Certain memories become part of our long-term memory due to frequent recollection, like our childhood street address. Other memories persist because of the emotional impact they carry, such as a cherished summer vacation with family.

Formation, Storage, and Recall of Memories

The process of creating a new memory can be broken down into four steps: encoding, consolidation, storage, and retrieval of information.

  • Memory Encoding:  Memory encoding serves as the initial stage of memory formation. It requires us to focus our attention on a specific item, such as the words written in a book or the plot of a TV show. In simple terms, encoding transforms both our internal thoughts and external information into short-term and long-term memory. Patients dealing with attention-related difficulties, often exacerbated by conditions like COVID-19, may struggle with encoding new memories as their brains fail to concentrate adequately in the initial stages of memory formation.
  • Memory Consolidation: After the process of encoding, the brain undergoes memory consolidation to ensure the memories can be stored for more extended periods. This consolidation process occurs during sleep. While the precise mechanisms remain elusive, researchers believe that different types of memories consolidate during different stages of sleep. For instance, factual memories, like knowing that Paris is the capital of France, may consolidate during deep sleep, while memories involving sequences of steps may consolidate during lighter sleep.
  • Memory Storage: Once memories have been consolidated, they are ready for long-term storage. To facilitate this process, memories are organized and structured. Similar memories tend to be stored in close proximity to one another, which enhances their retrievability. Consequently, encountering a specific place or catching a familiar scent can trigger the recollection of associated memories.
  • Memory Recall: The final stage of memory involves the process of memory recall, wherein previously encoded and stored information is retrieved by the brain. During this process, the brain “replays” the neural activity that initially occurred during the specific event being recalled. Since different aspects of the memory are stored in different locations within the brain (e.g., sounds in one area, smells in another), retrieving the memory is more intricate than simply retrieving a single item from storage. It requires reconstructing the relevant information from the fragmented puzzle pieces scattered throughout the brain and is susceptible to errors or inaccuracies.

The Link Between COVID-19 and Memory Loss

Recent studies have suggested a potential association between COVID-19 and memory loss. Researchers believe that the virus can directly affect the central nervous system, including the brain, leading to cognitive impairments. Additionally, the body’s inflammatory response to the infection may cause widespread inflammation, which can further impact cognitive function.

While the exact mechanisms behind this connection are still being investigated, it is crucial to be aware of the potential risks and take steps to mitigate them.

Here are some tips to prevent memory loss during COVID-19:

Maintain a Healthy Lifestyle

A healthy lifestyle forms the foundation for overall well-being, including brain health. By adopting healthy habits, you can promote better memory function. Regular exercise, a balanced diet, and adequate sleep all play vital roles in maintaining cognitive abilities.

Stay Physically Active

Engaging in regular physical activity not only improves cardiovascular health but also enhances cognitive function. Exercise stimulates the release of chemicals in the brain that promote the growth of new neurons, improving memory and overall brain health. Simple activities like walking, yoga, or home workouts can be beneficial during times of restricted movement.

Prioritize Mental Health

The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a toll on mental health worldwide. Stress, anxiety, and depression can affect memory and cognitive abilities negatively. It’s essential to prioritize mental well-being during these challenging times. Engage in activities that help reduce stress, such as meditation, deep breathing exercises, or pursuing hobbies you enjoy. Seek support from loved ones or consider professional help if needed.

Follow a Balanced Diet

Proper nutrition is crucial for brain health. Include a variety of low sugar fruits, vegetables, clean animal proteins, and healthy fats in your diet. Certain foods, such as fatty fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids, blueberries, and nuts, have been linked to improved cognitive function. Stay hydrated. Avoid the consumption of processed foods and sugary drinks. They will negatively impact memory and overall health.

Engage in Cognitive Activities

Keep your mind active and challenged by participating in cognitive activities. Puzzles, reading, learning new skills, or playing memory-enhancing games can help maintain cognitive abilities. These activities stimulate the brain, improve memory retention, and enhance mental agility.

Manage Stress Levels

Chronic stress can impair memory and cognitive function. Practice stress management techniques, such as mindfulness, deep breathing, or engaging in activities that bring you joy. Establish a healthy work-life balance, set realistic goals, and prioritize self-care.

Stay Connected with Loved Ones

Social connections are vital for overall well-being, including cognitive health. Despite physical distancing measures, maintain social connections virtually. Regular video calls, phone conversations, or online group activities can provide a sense of belonging and stimulate cognitive function through meaningful interactions.

Establish a Routine

Creating a daily routine can help improve memory and overall productivity. Set aside specific times for activities such as work, exercise, meals, and relaxation. A consistent routine provides structure and reduces cognitive load, allowing your brain to focus on important tasks and retain information better.

Practice Good Sleep Habits

Adequate sleep is essential for memory consolidation and overall brain health. Aim for 7-9 hours of quality sleep each night. Establish a relaxing bedtime routine, avoid electronic devices before bed, and create a comfortable sleep environment to promote restful sleep.

Seek Medical Advice if Needed

If you experience persistent or worsening memory loss or cognitive difficulties, consult a healthcare professional. They can evaluate your symptoms, conduct necessary tests, and provide appropriate guidance and treatment options.


While the link between COVID-19 and memory loss is still being explored, it is crucial to prioritize brain health during these challenging times. By adopting a healthy lifestyle, engaging in cognitive activities, managing stress, and seeking support when needed, you can mitigate the potential effects of COVID-19 on memory function. Remember to stay informed, stay connected, and prioritize self-care.


  1. Can COVID-19 directly cause memory loss? While research suggests a potential association between COVID-19 and memory loss, the exact mechanisms are still being investigated. It is important to stay updated with the latest scientific findings.
  2. Are there any specific foods that can help improve memory? Certain foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, and nutrients have been linked to improved cognitive function. These include fatty fish, blueberries, nuts, and green leafy vegetables. However, a balanced diet overall is crucial for brain health.
  3. Can regular exercise help improve memory function? Yes, regular exercise has been shown to enhance memory function. Physical activity increases blood flow to the brain and promotes the release of chemicals that support the growth of new neurons, improving cognitive abilities.
  4. Are there any specific cognitive activities that can help prevent memory loss? Engaging in cognitive activities such as puzzles, reading, learning new skills, and playing memory-enhancing games can help maintain cognitive abilities and prevent memory loss. These activities stimulate the brain and promote neuroplasticity, supporting memory function.
  5. Can memory loss caused by COVID-19 be reversed? In many cases, memory loss caused by COVID-19 can improve over time as the body recovers from the infection. However, the extent of recovery may vary from person to person. It is important to adopt a healthy lifestyle. Follow the recommendations provided to support brain health and facilitate the recovery process.
  6. Is memory loss a common symptom of COVID-19? Memory loss is not one of the most commonly reported symptoms of COVID-19. However, emerging evidence suggests a possible association between the virus and cognitive impairments. It’s important to stay informed about the latest research and consult a healthcare professional if you experience concerning symptoms.
  7. How long does memory loss associated with COVID-19 typically last? The duration of memory loss associated with COVID-19 can vary depending on various factors, including the severity of the infection and individual differences. In many cases, memory loss improves as the body recovers. Some individuals may experience persistent or long-term cognitive difficulties. It is advisable to seek medical advice for proper evaluation and guidance.

Remember, while this article provides helpful suggestions and insights, everyone is different. It is important to consult with healthcare professionals for personalized advice and guidance regarding your specific situation. Prioritizing overall well-being, adopting a healthy lifestyle, and staying informed are key in navigating the challenges of COVID-19 and promoting optimal brain health.

Dr. Garland Glenn

Garland Glenn

My primary goal in writing articles and with this website is to make freely available the information and solutions I offer to my patients. As we live longer, the quality of those years is going to depend more and more on how we take care of ourselves. My hope here is to provide you with the tools you will need to a live a long and healthy life.

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